Dasar Teori Percobaan Elastisitas (Hukum Hooke)


1.1 Dasar teori

Pegas merupakan salah satu contoh benda elastis. Elastis atau elastisitas adalah kemampuan sebuah benda untuk kembali ke bentuk awalnya ketika gaya luar yang diberikan pada benda tersebut dihilangkan. Jika sebuah gaya diberikan pada sebuah benda elastis, maka bentuk benda tersebut berubah. Pegas dan karet mengalami perubahan bentuk yaitu pertambahan panjang (Mikarajuddin, 2008).

Hukum Hooke menjelaskan tentang batas elastisitas. Besarnya gaya hooke ini secara proporsional akan berbanding lurus dengan jarak pergerakan pegas dari posisi normalnya. Hukum Hooke menyatakan hubungan antara gaya (F) yang meregangkan pegas dan pertambahan panjang (∆x) di daerah yang berada dalam batas kelentingan pegas. Hukum Hooke dirumuskan sebagai F = k . ∆x. Konstanta (k) adalah tetapan perbandingan yang disebut tetapan pegas yang memiliki nilai berbeda untuk pegas yang berbeda (Foster, 2011).

Hukum Hooke berlaku hanya pada linear karakteristik bahan, daerah ketika pertambahan panjang pegas yang sebanding dengan besar gaya yang diterima pegas. Batas linear pegas biasanya dipahami sebagai keadaan ketika gaya yang diberikan menyebabkan pegas memanjang dua kali panjang semula. Jika hal tersebut dilakukan, maka pegas akan menjadi rusak dan daya elastisitasnya akan berkurang atau bahkan hilang (Kamajaya, 2007).

1.2 Tujuan

Menentukan nilai konstanta pegas.



Foster, Bob. 2011. Terpadu Fisika SMA/MA Jilid 2A. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Kamajaya. 2007. Cerdas Belajar Fisika. Bandung: Grafindo Media Pratama.

Mikarajuddin. 2008. IPA Fisika Jilid I. Jakarta: Esis.



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